Dried half shells are used as the bodies of musical instruments, including the Chinese yehu and banhu, along with the Vietnamese đàn gáo and Arabo-Turkic rebab. Its kernel is harvested for its edible flesh and delicious water, while its husk is used for its strong fibers. (1992). Palm wine is distilled to produce arrack. Tempurung, as the shell is called in the Malay language, can be used as a soup bowl and—if fixed with a handle—a ladle. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. (1950) Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft. It can be reduced further to yield coconut sugar also referred to as palm sugar or jaggery. This invertebrate builds armor from coconut halves", "Indonesia's veined octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells", "Coconut anaphylaxis: Case report and review", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (6. Data shows the number of old coconut trees in Indonesia is increasing, hence their productivity is declining. In 2007, the Philippines imposed a quarantine in Metro Manila and 26 provinces to stop the spread of the pest and protect the Philippine coconut industry managed by some 3.5 million farmers.. These includes two specimens named "Cocos" palaeonucifera and "Cocos" binoriensis, both were dated by their authors to the Maastrichtian–Danian of the early Tertiary (70 to 62 million years ago). Santos, G.A., Batugal, P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and Labouisse J.P. 1996. Coconut milk contains 5% to 20% fat, while coconut cream contains around 20% to 50% fat. (2006). As early human communities began to harvest coconuts for eating and planting, they (perhaps unintentionally) selected for a larger endosperm-to-husk ratio and a broader, spherical base, which rendered the fruit useful as a cup or bowl, thus creating the niu vai type. ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project 1991, Muak-Lek, Saraburi, Thailand.  In the story of Sina and the Eel, the origin of the coconut is related as the beautiful woman Sina burying an eel, which eventually became the first coconut. The inner flesh of the mature seed, as well as the coconut milk extracted from it, form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. The Hindu goddess of well-being and wealth, Lakshmi, is often shown holding a coconut. , The Philippines is the world's second-largest producer of coconuts. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. Mattituck: Amereon House. We are talking about grassroots movement with our organic farmers to produce the highest quality organic coconut sugar and nectar while enabling them to have better income through fair trade. In India, the woven coconut leaves are used to build wedding marquees, especially in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. They are considered a rare delicacy, as harvesting the buds kills the palms. , The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club of New Orleans traditionally throws hand-decorated coconuts, one of the most valuable Mardi Gras souvenirs, to parade revelers. Design Main part of the 10 first seconds. The white, fleshy part of the seed, the coconut meat, is used fresh or dried in cooking, especially in confections and desserts such as macaroons and buko pie. Australian cities put much effort into de-fruiting decorative coconut trees to ensure that the mature coconuts do not fall and injure people. Chan, Edward and Craig R. Elevitch. Coconut and palm sugar are used in many food industries such as soy sauce, traditional food, bread and others. However their historical distribution was likely more limited. The aim is to knock a coconut off the stand and win it. Selamat datang di situs web resmi Hankook Indonesia. , Brontispa longissima (coconut leaf beetle) feeds on young leaves, and damages both seedlings and mature coconut palms. ; Batugal, P.; Bonnot, F. (2008). (2009). Coconut sugar contains natural minerals and vitamins that support a healthful lifestyle for men and women that are active. (2008). This report on Indonesian coconut export is useful in market analysis. Coconut oil, coconut cream, coconut water, and activated coconut-shell charcoal have all become popular cooking, health, and cosmetic choices, appearing on more and more shelves and ingredient labels across the country. Coconuts' remarkable levels of resilience means that they can be grown in a wide variety of soils, although they do require a relatively high amount of rainfall.  Their cultivation and spread was closely tied to the early migrations of the Austronesian peoples who carried coconuts as canoe plants to islands they settled. In the United States and Europe, coconut-based products are booming in popularity. Coconuts have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution thanks to human action in using them for agriculture. Brazil is the world's fourth largest producer of coconuts. The ancient coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Coconut Crabs Facts: Animals of the World, World Leaders In Corn (Maize) Production, By Country, The World’s Largest Oil Reserves By Country, Top Cotton Producing Countries In The World. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). It forms the basis of wedding and worship rituals in Hinduism, a coconut religion in Vietnam, and features in the origin myths of several societies. Rigby (1995) assigned them to modern Cocos nucifera based on its size.  Coconut milk can be diluted to create coconut milk beverages. Traditionally, dessert banana plants and local wild beach flora such as Scaevola taccada and Ipomoea pes-caprae were used as humidity-supplying green undergrowth for coconut trees, mixed with sea almond and sea hibiscus. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (1,500–2,500 mm [59–98 in] annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward. Harries' adoption of the Polynesian terms niu kafa and niu vai has now passed into general scientific discourse, and his hypothesis is generally accepted. Coconut trunks are used for building small bridges and huts; they are preferred for their straightness, strength, and salt resistance. Indo Vegetable Oil Industri, which has been established for over 30 years in edible oil industry. Indonesia Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline. North Sumatra 3. It is one of the most useful trees in the world and is often referred to as the "tree of life".  In 2018, world production of coconuts was 62 million tonnes, led by Indonesia, the Philippines, and India, with 74% combined of the total (table). , In March 1521, a description of the coconut was given by Antonio Pigafetta writing in Italian and using the words "cocho"/"cochi", as recorded in his journal after the first European crossing of the Pacific Ocean during the Magellan circumnavigation and meeting the inhabitants of what would become known as Guam and the Philippines. Coconut palms are normally cultivated in hot and wet tropical climates.  It can also be fermented to produce a jelly-like dessert known as nata de coco. Read all articles.  Yellowing diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific Region. Coconut from Indonesia - Free to use unique search engine of reliable, genuine and verified companies, suppliers, exporters, sellers, manufacturers, factories, traders, tradeleads of products and services from all over the world. ", https://source.wustl.edu/2011/06/deep-history-of-coconuts-decoded, "Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity".  Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp (outermost layer) removed. The United States of America and Western European countries absorbed about 70 percent of total imports.  They may grow but not fruit properly in areas with insufficient warmth, such as Bermuda. In 2016, the country was responsible for the production of over 119 million tonnes.  Coconut oil extracted from coconut milk or copra is also used for frying, cooking, and making margarine, among other uses.. Coconut oil, aside from being used in cooking as an ingredient and for frying, is used in soaps, cosmetics, hair oil, and massage oil. Training without Reward: Traditional Training of Pig-tailed Macaques as Coconut Harvesters. The natural habitat of coconuts is found in coastal areas and on the fringes of deserts. The island country of Sri Lanka is the world's fifth largest producer of coconuts. Drift models based on wind and ocean currents have shown that coconuts could not have drifted across the Pacific unaided. , Two important coconut products were first developed in the Philippines, macapuno and nata de coco. Hearts of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad". Various other products made from thickened coconut milk with sugar and/or eggs like coconut jam and coconut custard are also widespread in Southeast Asia.  In the West it was originally called nux indica, a name used by Marco Polo in 1280 while in Sumatra. The decreased buoyancy and increased fragility of this spherical, thin-husked fruit would not matter for a species that had started to be dispersed by humans and grown in plantations. ", He also notes that several of the nuts began to germinate by the time they had been ten weeks at sea, precluding an unassisted journey of 100 days or more.. They need year round warmth and moisture to grow well and fruit. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia, Learn how and when to remove this template message, more deaths are caused by falling coconuts than by sharks, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, "coco | Origin and meaning of coco by Online Etymology Dictionary", "coconut | Origin and meaning of coconut by Online Etymology Dictionary", "The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Seaman – The Arabian Nights – The Thousand and One Nights – Sir Richard Burton translator", "A Brief History of the Coconut Palm in Australia", "Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (, "Coconuts: not indigenous, but quite at home nevertheless", "Ancient crops provide first archaeological signature of the westward Austronesian expansion", "An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast", "Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem", "Fossil fruit of Cocos L. (Arecaceae) from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of central India and its phytogeographical significance", "An update of monocot macrofossil data from New Zealand and Australia", "A Fossil Coconut Fruit from the Early Eocene of Gujarat", Rise in coconut yield, farming area put India on top, "How Long Does It Take for a Coconut Tree to Get Coconuts? Coconut fruit in the wild are light, buoyant, and highly water resistant. Fishermen give an offering of coconut to the sea to celebrate the beginning of a new fishing season. Kami berupaya dengan sungguh-sungguh dalam memproduksi ban berteknologi tinggi untuk mobil penumpang, SUV, truk & bus. All of these introductions are within the last few centuries, relatively recent in comparison to the spread of Pacific coconuts. In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". These have much lower fat content and are suitable as milk substitutes. , In some parts of the world (Thailand and Malaysia), trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts. Coconut butter is often used to describe solidified coconut oil, but has also been adopted as an alternate name for creamed coconut, a specialty products made of coconut milk solids or puréed coconut meat and oil.  With this, it will no more be considered as a tree and no permission will be required by the forest department before cutting a coconut tree. T. Pradeepkumar, B. Sumajyothibhaskar, and K.N. It contended that this would have provided the necessary evolutionary pressures, and would account for morphological factors such as a thick husk to protect against ocean degradation and provide a moist medium in which to germinate on sparse atolls. Over the course of evolutionary time-scales the shifting atolls would have shortened the paths of colonization, meaning that any one coconut would not have to travel very far to find new land.  Thenga, its Malayalam name, was used in the detailed description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510 and also in the later Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. According to APCC (the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community), many plantations across Asia are experiencing zero growth, and some are even ceasing production as their farmers switch their focus to oil palm production. It is also popular in Indonesia (where it is known as kopyor) for making beverages.. The main coconut-producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman, but they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea coasts, because these seas are tropical and provide enough humidity (through seawater evaporation) for coconut trees to grow. , In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana), is used in landscaping.  The annual rainy season known locally as khareef or monsoon makes coconut cultivation easy on the Arabian east coast. The coconut cultivars grown in Oman are generally of the drought-resistant Indian 'West Coast tall' variety. As well as from common, organic. , The coconut is the national tree of the Maldives and is considered the most important plant in the country. , In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration declared that coconut must be disclosed as an ingredient on package labels as a "tree nut" with potential allergenicity. , Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree saplings. , The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, also known as toddy or tubâ (Philippines), tuak (Indonesia and Malaysia) or karewe (fresh and not fermented, collected twice a day, for breakfast and dinner) in Kiribati.  Conran et al. Coconut palms are hard to establish in dry climates, and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed. In Florida, wild populations of coconut palms extend up the East Coast from Key West to Jupiter Inlet, and up the West Coast from Marco Island to Sarasota. WE ARE INDONESIAN INTEGRATED GROUP EXPERTISE IN COCONUT FOOD PROCESSING PRODUCT.  A sprouting coconut seed is the logo for Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia, the Indonesian scouting organization. "Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (, The Coconut Odyssey – the bounteous possibilities of the tree of life, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, "Report: 26 provinces quarantined for coconut pest", "Coconut production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Petenes mangroves: types and severity of threats". The word ‘Narali’ is derived from naral implying ‘coconut’ in Marathi. Nata de coco, also called coconut gel, is another jelly-like coconut product made from fermented coconut water. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the "husk" of the coconuts. , The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropics for decoration, as well as for its many culinary and nonculinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm can be used by humans in some manner and has significant economic value.  The female flower is much larger than the male flower. In 2019, it was estimated that Indonesia produced around 2.83 million tons of coconut. A dried half coconut shell with husk can be used to buff floors. Unlike the UAE, which grows mostly non-native dwarf or hybrid coconut cultivars imported from Florida for ornamental purposes, the slender, tall Omani coconut cultivars are relatively well-adapted to the Middle East's hot dry seasons, but need longer to reach maturity. The discovery of this behavior was observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and 2008. (January 27, 1967). Every single one of these was ruined by the sea water.  It is used in horticulture in potting compost, especially in orchid mix. The leaves also provide material for baskets that can draw well water and for roofing thatch; they can be woven into mats, cooking skewers, and kindling arrows as well. , The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy such as te kamamai in Kiribati or dhiyaa hakuru and addu bondi in the Maldives.  Most of which (89%) is saturated fat, with lauric acid as a major fatty acid. Indonesia has the largest area with coconut trees and more than 90% of it is owned by farmers. The earliest Cocos-like fossil to be found was "Cocos" zeylanica, a fossil species described from small fruits, around 3.5 cm (1.4 in) × 1.3 to 2.5 cm (0.51 to 0.98 in) in size, recovered from the Miocene (~23 to 5.3 million years ago) of New Zealand in 1926. The coconut is a tropical tree species, mainly grown and harvested by small-scale farmers. Indonesia overtook it in 2010.  A frayed piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush. The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. These vary by the taste of the coconut water and color of the fruit, as well as other genetic factors. Mangkuyudan 43 candlehouse Virgin coconut oil,Birthday candle. Many of the coconuts produced in Indonesia are exported overseas. species of flowering plant in the palm family Arecaceae, This article is about the plant. The process of husk extraction from the coir bypasses the retting process, using a custom-built coconut husk extractor designed by ASEAN–Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre in 1986.  In Maldivian folklore, one of the main myths of origin reflects the dependence of the Maldivians on the coconut tree. Half coconut shells are used in theatre Foley sound effects work, struck together to create the sound effect of a horse's hoofbeats. • Indonesia.coconuts.co receives approximately 13.6K visitors and 23,528 page impressions per day. In American Cartoons, coconuts often fall on an animated character's head for comedic effect. nuciferae.  The similarities of the local names in the Austronesian region is also cited as evidence that the plant originated in the region. The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. The first coconuts were of the niu kafa type, with thick husks to protect the seed, an angular, highly ridged shape to promote buoyancy during ocean dispersal, and a pointed base that allowed fruits to dig into the sand, preventing them from being washed away during germination on a new island. Samosir (eds.) However, admixture, the transfer of genetic material, evidently occurred between the two populations. In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Tirupur regions top the production list. , A study in 2011 identified two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations of coconuts, one originating from Island Southeast Asia (the Pacific group) and the other from the southern margins of the Indian subcontinent (the Indo-Atlantic group). It can be used in liquid form as would other vegetable oils, or in solid form as would butter or lard. The leaves are used for thatching houses, or for decorating climbing frames and meeting rooms in Cambodia, where the plant is known as dôô:ng.. and early germination on the palm (vivipary) was important, rather than increasing the number or size of the edible parts of a fruit that was already large enough. This, together with their use of the South American sweet potato, suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas.. The fruit however was compacted in the fossilization process and it was not possible to determine if it had the diagnostic three pores that characterize members of the tribe Cocoseae. (1993). Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Coconut milk, not to be confused with coconut water, is obtained by pressing the grated coconut meat, usually with hot water added which extracts the coconut oil, proteins, and aromatic compounds. Leaves are also woven into small piuches that are filled with rice and cooked to make pusô and ketupat.. Mature fruits have significantly less liquid than young, immature coconuts, barring spoilage.  The tall variety is outcrossing while dwarf palms are incrossing, which has led to a much greater degree of genetic diversity within the tall group. This type of root system is known as fibrous or adventitious, and is a characteristic of grass species. It is now the world's largest producer of coconuts. They include morphotaxa like Palmoxylon sundaran, Palmoxylon insignae, and Palmocarpon cocoides. The evolutionary origin of the coconut is under dispute, with theories stating that it may have evolved in Asia, South America, or on islands in the Pacific. In 2018, the amount of coconuts imported into Indonesia amounted to X tonnes, shrinking by -X% against the previous year. But there’s so much more to this big crazy metropolis than meets the eye, and it’s all those hidden wonders - the hilarious, the heartbreaking, the beautiful, the delicious - that we at Coconuts Jakarta hope to bring to our readers (plus, all the latest and greatest ways to complain about the traffic). But we had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the waves washing around them. Indonesia has one of the largest coconut area harvested, 3M hectares. Papua 5. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar, is nearly identical to the coconut, more so than the queen palm and can also be grown in slightly cooler climates than the coconut palm. However, it is not native and display a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect. And no coconut can float over the sea faster than a balsa raft moves with the wind behind it. According to figures published in December 2009 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it is the world's second largest producer … , Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia observed the octopus species Amphioctopus marginatus use tools, specifically coconut shells, for defense and shelter.  Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan. In Kerala, India, the main coconut pests are the coconut mite, the rhinoceros beetle, the red palm weevil, and the coconut leaf caterpillar. , Outside of New Zealand and India, only two other regions have reported Cocos-like fossils, namely Australia and Colombia. In 1987, a "coconut law" was signed by Governor Edwin Edwards exempting from insurance liability any decorated coconut "handed" from a Zulu float. This pattern coincides with the known trade routes of Austronesian sailors. Another product of the coconut is coconut oil. In truth, it is a lot sweeter than cane sugar. West Java 4. The conditions required for coconut trees to grow without any care are: The main limiting factor for most locations which satisfy the rainfall and temperature requirements is canopy growth, except those locations near coastlines, where the sandy soil and salt spray limit the growth of most other trees. You can also choose from semi-husked, whole, and full-husked. The 2014 study hypothesized that instead the species evolved while on coral atolls in the Pacific, and then dispersed to the continents. The coconut populations in the island show genetic admixture between the two subpopulations indicating that Pacific coconuts were brought by the Austronesian settlers that later interbred with the local Indo-Atlantic coconuts. The reasons why coconut are cultivated only in Yemen's Al Mahrah and Hadramaut governorates and in the Sultanate of Oman, but not in other suitable areas in the Arabian Peninsula, may originate from the fact that Oman and Hadramaut had long dhow trade relations with Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, East Africa, and Zanzibar, as well as southern India and China. Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called sprouted coconut or coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.  However, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, and may occasionally have bisexual flowers. UniCoconut has an Integrated Coconut Processing plant in Indonesia to produce and provide high quality products from this superfood to health conscious consumers around the world in sustainable and economical way, thus ensuring and fulfilling environmental and community needs at the same time. , Many different varieties are grown, including the Maypan coconut, King coconut, and Macapuno. In the Philippines, this alcoholic drink is called lambanog or "coconut vodka". , The coconut is also used as a target and prize in the traditional British fairground game coconut shy. In Johann Vollmann and Istvan Rajcan (Eds.). (2009), assigned it to Cocos based on the size and the ridged shape of the fruit. The cups were frequently engraved and decorated with precious metals.. Adkins S.W., M. Foale and Y.M.S. The falling nature of their mature fruit has led to preoccupation with death by coconut.. Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, is famous for a few things: traffic, floods, chaos and traffic. Werth, E. (1933). ; Diekmann, M. In Kerala, coconut trunks are used for house construction. The natural habitat of coconuts is found in coastal areas and on the fringes of deserts. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when imports increased by X% year-to-year. It is estimated that around one quarter of total farm land in the Philippines is dedicated to coconut production. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. The various parts of the coconut have a number of culinary uses. , Some South Asian, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Ocean cultures have origin myths in which the coconut plays the main role. It is used for cooking various dishes. Such an origin indicates that the coconuts were not introduced naturally, such as by sea currents. • Indonesia.coconuts.co is mostly visited by people located in Singapore, United States, Thailand . The production of coconuts plays an important role in the economy, with 25% of cultivated land (around 3.56 million hectares) used for coconut plantations and approximately 25 to 33% of the population reliant on coconuts for their livelihood. (2008). Most important, however, are its oils, which are extracted, processed, and marketed for culinary, medicinal, and cosmetic uses alike. Bourke, R. Michael and Tracy Harwood (Eds.). Get the latest articles about Indonesian coconut products.  Endt & Hayward (1997) have noted their resemblance to members of the South American genus Parajubaea, rather than Cocos, and propose a South American origin. Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts that have drifted or been deposited by ocean currents.  It can also be diluted into a beverage. ‘Fair Trade’ practices in the industry try to ensure that the benefits of the booming sector will trickle all of the way down to small farmers, but they unfortunately keep the production rates rising at a slower rate. The immature seeds are infested and desapped by larvae staying in the portion covered by the perianth of the immature seed; the seeds then drop off or survive deformed. He took the term from the Arabs, who called it جوز هندي jawz hindī, translating to 'Indian nut'. Dwarf varieties are also available. Some cultivars are more drought resistant such as 'West coast tall' (India) while others such as 'Hainan Tall' (China) are more cold tolerant. , It is one of the most useful trees in the world..  They are also used in Hindu weddings as a symbol of prosperity. The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a source of charcoal. Coconut production is very important to the agricultural industry in India and the economy as a whole, especially in rural areas of the country. , A special cultivar of coconut known as macapuno has a jelly-like coconut meat. Specimens have been collected from the sea as far north as Norway (but it is not known where they entered the water). On an average the state’s soil yields over 14,000 coconuts per hectare. PT. In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea in Kerala. Therefore, heavy turf grass environments (beach resorts and golf courses) also pose a major threat to local coconut trees. India is the third largest coconut producer in the world. In the Ilocos region of the northern Philippines, the Ilocano people fill two halved coconut shells with diket (cooked sweet rice), and place liningta nga itlog (halved boiled egg) on top of it.